Sabtu, 29 Januari 2011

Data Storage Features of Personal Computers

By Daniel A Hughes
Computer data storage is the component of the PC which holds digital information for a particular period of time. Data storing is one of the most important functions of a PC. Along with CPU and Input and Output devices, it is considered as core component of a PC.
Formats of stored data 
Data is stored in the storage device using binary format. Audio, pictures, text, numerals and any other information are converted into a sequence of bits or binary digits. Binary digits could hold the value of either 0 or 1 only. The set of 8 consecutive bits is called a byte. Byte is the most common unit of storage.
Storage Hierarchy 
Based on the bandwidth,latency and cost per bit, the memory types are organized into storage hierarchy. The band width of the memory types at the higher positions of the storage hierarchy is more than of the memory types that at the lower positions. Also, if the position is higher, then the latency is also less. There are 4 type in the hierarchy namely primary, secondary, tertiary and off-line storage.
Primary Storage 
CPU could directly access memory type of primary storage. Random Access Memory or RAM is an example of this type of memory. Though RAM is tiny sized and light, but it is quite expensive. It is also volatile. RAM does not retain information, when not powered up. Two more types of primary storage are Processor Register and Processor Cache. CPU contains the processor registers. The size of the register could be 1 byte, 2 bytes, 4 bytes or even 8 bytes. CPU performs various operations on the registers. Among all forms of storage, registers are the fastest to access. Processor Cache is slower than registers but faster than main memory. It is used to improve the performance of the PC. Most widely used information store in the main memory is copied into processor cache. This makes the information access time much lesser.
Secondary Storage 
CPU cannot directly access memory type of secondary storage. The CPU uses its input and output channels to access secondary storage data. It is non volatile which means it does not lose data while not powered up. Hard disk drives, optical storage drives,flash memory,floppy drives are some examples of secondary storage category. This is the most important storage for PC because information is stored in it permanently. If by any reason the stored data gets corrupted, the computer support becomes essential to restore the corrupt data.
Tertiary storage 
Tertiary storage involves robotic mechanism which inserts and takes out removable mass storage media into storage device as per system requirements. It is mainly used for accessing the huge amount of old and rarely accesses data. Optical jukeboxes and tape libraries are two examples of tertiary storage.
Off-line storage 
Off-line storage devices are not under the control of any processing unit. While storing or retrieving information offline storage devices are connected to the CPU. Once the data transfer is done, the device is removed from the processor. These types of devices are used mainly for data transfer.
Recovering lost data 
Data stored in the storage devices could be lost,damaged or corrupted due to many reasons such as hardware failure, human error,software crash etc. Remote support could come handy in retrieving lost,damaged or corrupted data.
Daniel Hughes, 31, is one of the most heralded technical writers of PC Care n Cure. He hails from Toronto, Canada. His educational qualifications include a Master's degree in Journalism and Mass Communication. His sublime articles have quenched the thirst of millions of knowledge seekers.

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The Essentials of PCB Prototyping

By Barbarino Jiangxi

A PCB (printed circuit board) prototype is a model or sample of what the final PCB will look and function like. PCB prototyping is an essential process that comes prior to mass production and the subsequent launch of new PCBs into the market. This process ascertains whether a suggested PCB design will perform as expected thereby revealing any possible flaws and thus enabling the designers to make any necessary changes. Any other improvements or alternatives the designers may think of are also introduced at this stage. The mass production of any new product leave alone PCBs cannot just simply commence without the prototyping stage.
Prototyping will not necessarily reveal any flaws as at times the design is perfect. PCB prototyping in this case will be used confirm and re-ascertain that the PCBs performance is consistent. The manufacturer or the customers can then give their opinion about the PCB along with other suggestions/improvements they may have. The PCB designers should always be prepared for any possible outcomes and thus any reworking at this stage should further not be considered as an extra cost. Bypassing prototyping and engaging in the mass production of a PCB only for it to fail it will certainly be catastrophic in terms of wasted effort, time and money.
The following are the generalized stages in PCB prototyping. The first is called the breadboard test or proof of principle. This checks if the logic behind the PCB is achievable. Next is examining the size (preferable dimensions) aspects of the anticipated PCB. After this stage a visual model is generated and if approved the final stage which is function and appearance is started. Whatever is achieved at this juncture is the closest to what the actual PCB will look like. Typically, in prototyping for PCBs, the simulation of current flow in the board and the condition of the circuitry are the two most important processes. It is only until the simulated system works as required that actual components and materials are implemented for the final model or prototype.
The production of prototypes is a process limited by time - it should take the least time possible to pave way for the actual manufacture. Companies offering PCB prototyping services are also likely to be involved in manufacture. As such, these companies strive to develop good/perfect prototypes. Advancement in technology and more so computerization has expedited the processes of prototyping and manufacturing PCBs and made them as error-free as possible. Accordingly, It is wise to choose a PCB company which has the latest technology, a capability which will ensure that the error margin is almost zero, the use of harmful chemicals is avoided, and PCB sizes are kept as small as possible but just as they are as required for modern electronic devices.
For more information about PCB Prototyping please visit

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Printer Rental for Businesses

By Sean M. Murphy Platinum Quality Author

Purchasing a printer would be ideal in case you need it for personal purposes or occasional events. But for upcoming small businesses and non-profit organizations, which need voluminous and high quality printing materials like brochures and flyers for their promotional events and campaigns, printer rental, would be the ideal solution. Here is a detailed note on how businesses can make the best use of printer rental services.
Cost of printing
If your company deals with printing multiple copies of documents, marketing materials etc, hiring a printer rental service would be economical. Apart from leasing the physical printing equipment, printer rental also provide the software loading and configuration at no additional cost. The rental rates are affordable but vary depending on the type of the printer and the duration of the rental.
Choice of printers
A rental service can offer a wide range of printers like laser printer, inkjet printer, thermal printer and plotter that are available in the market. This makes it easy for you to choose from the different types and models of computer printers depending on your need. If you have heavy printing work you can choose a laser printer, or u can hire an inkjet printer which is very easy to install and use for basic printing needs. The rental companies also offer printers from major manufacturers like Canon, Epson, Lexmark, HP etc at substantially low costs.
Technical Support
When the printer is under a heavy load, there is every chance that it might run out of toner or suffers a paper jam. A major benefit of hiring a printer rental service is the all round technical support and on-site service that comes as a part of the entire package. If your company requires usage of high quality graphics in printing, or printing large volumes of documents that need to be collated in batches of 100 or more, the technical staff from the printer rental can handle it more efficiently that your own.
Advanced Printing technology
Having multiple printers involves the chaos and confusion of connecting multiple cables. To avoid such a chaotic situation, ask the rentals company if they have a wireless server to connect your computer to the laser printer. A temporary wireless computer network saves you from the limitations of using additional cables at your office. The rental service can also help you set up and integrate the required hardware to your network at your work place, a conference or even a trade show.
Printing Software 
The printer rental package usually includes installation and configuration of the required printing software. This means that you will not have to worry about purchasing the suitable software programs for your graphics and imagery.
Quality Guaranteed
Your rental company ensures that the equipment they have leased to you is of top quality and is in workable condition. Apart from the hardware, a lot of rental agreements guarantee a quality and reliable service from their technicians who are qualified and certified for the job.
For all kinds of heavy printing work it is best that you choose a printer rental service. Printer rental are affordable and economic, unless you need a printer occasionally for personal or home use.
For more information on Virginia computer rental or Virginia desktop rentals, contact a technology professional at Vernon Computer Source.

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